La salud de los trabajadores en tiempos COVID-19

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En estos tiempos que corren, la premisa es cuidar de nosotros mismos y así cuidar a los sectores más vulnerables del COVID-19. El mayor desafío, serán las medidas a aplicar para superar las pérdidas humanas y económicas, y para los trabajadores el de recobrar sus medios de vida durante el período de recuperación, para que las cicatrices sean mínimas.


El comunicado de prensa OIT (9 abril 2020 GINEBRA) indica que la pandemia de COVID-19 ha afectado a los mercados laborales en casi todos los países del mundo, lo que lleva a pérdidas sin precedentes en las horas de trabajo y empleo. La OIT estima que esta situación afectará a 1.250 millones de trabajadores, representando casi el 38 por ciento del mundo y la mayoría de dichas pérdidas se producirán en los sectores más afectados. El recuento final de pérdidas de empleo anuales en 2020 dependerá críticamente de la evolución de la pandemia y las medidas tomadas para mitigar su impacto.

En el mundo del trabajo, se necesitan medidas políticas integradas a gran escala para disminuir el impacto, centrándose en cuatro pilares: apoyo a empresas, empleo e ingresos; estimulando la economía y el empleo; proteger a los trabajadores en el lugar de trabajo; y, utilizando el diálogo social entre el gobierno, los trabajadores y los empleadores para encontrar soluciones.

Los que continúan trabajando en espacios públicos, en particular los trabajadores de la salud, están en la primera línea de la respuesta al brote de COVID-19, y como tales expuestos directamente a los riesgos que supone esta enfermedad. Estos incluyen exposición a patógenos, largas horas de trabajo, angustia psicológica, fatiga, agotamiento ocupacional, estigma y violencia física en algunos casos. Especialmente hacemos mención a las mujeres, que constituyen el 70% de los trabajadores sanitarios de todo el mundo, incluyendo a quienes llevan a cabo su labor en instituciones de prestación de cuidados.

En Argentina podemos resaltar las siguientes estrategias para proteger a los trabajadores en el lugar de trabajo:

  • La Enfermedad COVID-19 producida por el Coronavirus SARS-COV-2 se considerará presuntivamente una enfermedad de carácter Profesional-No listada. DECNU-2020-367-APN-PTE
  • Licencias para trabajadores expuestos al contagio. El MTESS instauró una licencia para trabajadores del sector público y privado que lleguen de países con brote del COVID-19 (2020-178-APN-MT de 06/03); trabajadores independientes, becarios, pasantes y residentes médicos (Res.2020-184-APN-MT de 10/03) y todo trabajador con síntomas asociados al COVID-19, confirmación médica de haber contraído el virus, que haya estado en estrecho contacto con personas contagiadas o con síntomas, o llegado al país procedente de zonas afectadas (Res.2020-202-APN-MT de 13/03)
  • Licencias para trabajadores con responsabilidades de cuidado y de grupos de riesgo. El MTESS otorgó licencia a trabajadores del sector público y privado con hijos escolarizados (la licencia se otorga a uno de los padres o tutores), trabajadoras embarazadas, trabajadores mayores de 60 años (excepto los que cumplan servicios esenciales) y trabajadores pertenecientes a grupos de riesgo. (2020-207-APN-MT de 16/03)
  • Fomento del trabajo remoto. El gobierno autorizó a trabajadores del sector público nacional en cualquier modalidad de contratación a trabajar desde sus domicilios, excepto quienes presten servicios esenciales, y recomendó a las empresas privadas trabajar con la dotación mínima de empleados y adoptar medidas para trabajar a distancia (2020-207-APN-MT de 16/03)
  • Recomendaciones de seguridad e higiene para el sector de telecomunicaciones. La Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo formuló una serie de recomendaciones y, para facilitar su implementación, los trabajadores tendrán capacitación previa y controles de salud diarios.
  • La Unión Obrera de la Construcción (UOCRA) y la Cámara de la Construcción (CAMARCO) acordaron el primer Protocolo de recomendaciones prácticas COVID-19 para la industria de la construcción, avanzando en directrices de referencia para la prevención, que permitan conciliar la paulatina vuelta a la actividad con la preservación de la salud en los lugares de trabajo.
Desde la Asociación Argentina de Medicina Respiratoria hemos notado una respuesta política amplia y sin precedentes en nuestro país al igual que otros estados miembro de OIT, en reconocimiento de la necesidad de tomar medidas urgentes para garantizar que esta pandemia no deje cicatrices duraderas en la salud, las personas y los empleos.

Autora: Dra. Gabriela Manonelles (MN 164427\\MP 1969). Médica Neumonóloga, Coordinadora de la sección Enfermedades Ocupacionales de la Asociación Argentina de Medicina Respiratoria.

15 COMENTARIOS

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